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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

《X战警:天启》据悉将于2016年5月27日上映。

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An employee in the public relations department at Tencent Holdings, operator of a live-broadcast app through which a man received online payments of more than 250,000 yuan ($36,400) from a 13-year-old girl for his singing talent, said the girl might have faked her age when registering.
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adj. 人口统计学的

7. 2012年搞笑诺贝尔奖之物理学奖
['k?mf?t]
两名美国人因研究医生与医院、学生与学校和人体器官与被移植者之间的有效匹配,昨天被授予诺贝尔经济学奖。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

四部门发布意见 要求加强保护陶瓷产业知识产权工作

与此同时,还有其他因素在掣肘亚洲ETF市场,一些怀疑者担心,这些因素将阻碍散户市场的发展。
The Asia-Pacific is the common home of all countries in the region. China does not want to see any party in the Asia-Pacific region feel compelled to choose sides under the influence of a Cold-War mentality.
At the forum, tech entrepreneurs also shared their views on virtual reality, which they said will be the most important computing platform over the next five to 10 years.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

9. The Chinese militarywill demand and receive vastly expanded investments in the form of advancedaircraft and ships.
encouragement
Swiss school IMD comes top in the ranking of open-enrolment courses, available to all working managers, and jumps two places to second for customised programmes, which are tailor-made for corporate customers. Iese of Spain holds on to the top spot in the custom ranking and remains second in the open ranking.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • These are the official James Bond theme songs, ranked from worst to best, with two honorable mentions because they may or may not count, but were just that good, dang it.
  • 广晟入主国星佛照背后:政府资本如何影响LED照明行业?
  • graceful
  • 互联网+下的门窗 解决用户问题才是重点
  • 广东东莞家具业抢滩儿童市场谋转型
  • Total growth in new orders softened as new export orders rose at about the same pace as a month prior. But job shedding quickened, while input price growth edged lower and prices charged to clients picked up slightly.
    ?根据市长迈克尔?布隆伯格,报道的33个事故有10个发生在纽约,数字还有望上升。纽约的死亡是由于倒下的树木、电击和溺水。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 城市租房市场遇冷 部分北方城市环比降幅超过1%, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

11月份京沪深房价止涨 三线城市楼市开始转暖

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

中国石材产业面临洗牌 老公司大手笔小企业新玩法

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • Now that Chris and his girlfriend, Rose, have reached the meet-the-parents milestone of dating, she invites him for a weekend getaway upstate with Missy and Dean. At first, Chris reads the family's overly accommodating behavior as nervous attempts to deal with their daughter's interracial relationship, but as the weekend progresses, a series of increasingly disturbing discoveries lead him to a truth that he never could have imagined.
    同样,学校暑假期间在普华永道的一个为期3周的实习职位让她有机会体验在一家专业服务公司的生活。她说:“我曾经以为自己参加不了(普华永道项目),因为我没有工作经验。”
  • Staffing
    Over 11 million new urban jobs, and a registered urban unemployment rate within 4.5 percent.
    答:英雄是一个不想成为英雄的人。英雄是那种明明完全可以选择,但却选择在那个时刻承担起责任的人。那就是英雄所要做的事。举个例子,在911实践中,飞机上的一些乘客曾经和恐怖分子搏斗。在福岛辐射泄露实践中,有些人前往当地试图修理核电站,并且因此而死。但他们必须这么做。他们是英雄。他们想要的并不是“当英雄”,而是承担责任,做正确的事。
    At New Year and always, may peace and love fill your heart, beauty fill your world, and contentment and joy fill your days.新年的祝福,平日的希冀,愿你心境祥和、充满爱意,愿你的世界全是美满,愿你一切称心如意,快乐无比。
    会。在2018年美联储可能多次加息的情况下,新兴市场中的交易可能会波动起伏。有时可能感觉有点像2013年“削减恐慌”(taper tantrum)重演。然而,平均GDP增速将升至5%,高于去年4.7%的预测值。这主要是因为近来处境艰难的俄罗斯和巴西境况将好转。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 精装房日渐风行 卫浴企业行情悲喜交加
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 四问中粮地产高价收购?A股已非人傻钱多

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

n. 安装,放置,周围,环境,(为诗等谱写的)乐曲
2. 麦嘉华对贝南克灾难性QE计划的末日警告
回顾历史,单场进球数最多的比赛出现在1994年美国世界杯(俄罗斯6-1喀麦隆)。24支球队在52场比赛中场均进球2.97个。
Barack Obama went on the offensive over foreign policy in the third and final presidential debate, repeatedly accusing Mitt Romney of flip-flopping on major international issues but failing to deliver a killer blow to his opponent's resurgent campaign.
5. Lacking confidence in your career intuition
The unexpected drop in 2013 came in spite of new policies--such as the city's 72- hour visa waiver for transit passengers--that were introduced in an attempt to nurture China's tourism industry.
Alice Schwarzer

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • Samsung’s comment was shorter: “Media reports of the acquisition are groundless.”
  • 中国建材行业一周大事记(6.8-6.14)
  • 这一发现引起了历史学家的极大关注,因为这为了解理查三世提供了更加确凿的证据。理查三世于1485年死于博斯沃思战役,之后有关他的一生一直充满争议。
    “Through the second half of the 20th century we had this big dispersion of trade and economic activity around the world. All this specialisation meant exports rose faster than GDP,” Mr Williams says.
  • 一二线城市新建住宅涨幅回落 发改委:坚决遏制房价上涨
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 这个啤酒机能从下往上倒着灌满一杯好酒。
    Japanese cities have seen a lowering of costs, despite being some of the most expensive cities over the past 20 years, Tokyo and Osaka have dropped to 11th and 14th place, respectively.
  • Much joy to you in the up coming year. May the warmest wishes, happy thoughts and friendly greetings come at New Year and stay with you all the year through.
    7、 阿斯顿·马丁必须有。不止如此,还要在异国情调的赌场里挥金如土——一掷千金的男人很能吸引寻欢中的女性。常与女性周旋的邦德更擅长于此。
  • The soaring prices of 2008, when oil reached more than $140 a barrel, will repeat, though not likely in 2014, Mr. Hummel said. The price 'is going to go higher.'
    n. 大赦,特赦
  • 在去年11月29日,共计约有93万人参加国家公务员考试,同比下降了60000人。不过,提供的2.7万个招聘岗位则创下了新高。
    The report said there were now 594 dollar billionaires in China, putting China ahead of the United States' 535. However, none of China's super-rich make it into the global top 20.
    五大发展理念:创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的发展理念
  • “他们说:‘我会奇怪她为什么在会议的时候低着头;我好奇她为什么不再兴奋地接过这个案子;我也会想她为什么一周有两天很早地离开,”凯说,“你在他们的脑海里引发了这些问题。”
    Users say the voice messages are transferred quickly enough to have a conversation on the platform. But different from free voice applications such as Microsoft Corp.'s Skype, it also offers the flexibility of answering messages at a later time. 'I can decide when to reply, or not to,' said Beijing WeChat user Robin Wang.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 北京人均GDP突破2万美元 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

花了钱就不顾卫生?住民宿要履行更积极的责任

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

河北廊坊规范存量房交易 遏制“阴阳合同”和“高评高贷”

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

智能家居琳琅满目选哪种 三大阵营齐齐看

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

富森·美家居冲击IPO 赶超红星美凯龙成未知数?

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • “I thought it would be impossible to replace Steve, and to some extent that’s true,” says Professor Michael Cusumano of MIT’s Sloan School of Management. “But internally the spirit is still alive and the company is organising around a less confrontational culture. We have to give Tim credit for that.”
  • Given the Raptors' existing personnel, the Ibaka/Tucker additions qualify as massive defensive upgrades, giving coach Dwane Casey the tools he will need to grind out postseason wins if Lowry and DeMar DeRozan see their scoring efficiency dip as it has in years past.
  • 挪用工钱买房背后被城市化的尴尬:有需求缺收入

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 和你共事的多数同事你都不喜欢
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • The second match will be held at the Mercedes-Benz Arena in Shanghai on Oct 8.
    But, when the skeletal remains were analyzed, the researchers found that the tombs had been reused multiple times. Some of the tombs contain more than 10 occupants, and the"repeated multiple burials warrant further study," the researcherswrote.
    愿你拥有新年所有美好的祝福。
  • 《迈耶罗维茨的故事》

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • Yes. Mr Meade is the candidate of the ruling Institutional Revolutionary Party, or PRI. His main rival is the hard leftist Andrés Manuel López Obrador, a passionate orator who can work a crowd. Mr Meade has a lot to overcome: he will have to convince voters that they can trust him, after he put up petrol prices by 20 per cent overnight in January, triggering a surge in inflation. He will also have to reveal himself as his own man, not just a clone of an unpopular government that has failed spectacularly to rein in rampant corruption and crime. But backed by the formidable PRI get-out-the-vote machine, he could prove unstoppable. In Mexico’s one-round-only system, 30 per cent of the vote might be enough.
  • 阿根廷要求对中国陶瓷洁具开展反倾销调查
  • 这条新闻可能对经常坐飞机环球旅行的旅客们并不稀奇,新加坡的机场再一次做到了。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 板材环保风暴来袭 新型涂料或将取代油漆
  • Household substance abuse
  • 摸清“家底”优化利用 津开展第三次国土调查
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

房贷新政出炉满月 一线城市楼市10月回暖

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 房价持续上涨动力正衰减 短期刚需能力有限
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 德国现代厨房行业协会参展第二届中国国际厨房卫浴博览会
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

由于今年是意大利标志性导演米开朗基罗·安东尼奥尼逝世10周年,为向大师致敬,将放映他的13部经典作品--从他的出道作品《某种爱的记录》到1995年的爱情片《云上的日子》。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

Erle Spratt, who manages M&G’s Asia property fund, an open-ended investment vehicle, says it is risky to invest directly because assets are not easy to find and price. “It is a very difficult market to buy assets in for investors like us, because developers have very substantial holdings and they tend not to sell,” he says.
When asked if the central bank would do more, Dario Perkins, chief European economist at Lombard Street Research, said: “I don’t think so, unless something goes wrong in the wider global economy.”
我对事物持悲观态度
Online banking and P2P lending has developed rapidly in China amid a push by Beijing to expand financing for consumers and small businesses. Upwards of 2,000 companies operate in China’s P2P lending milieu.
你说的有道理。那我们就把国王队归到“有可能”的那一档里吧。同样我会把掘金队也归到这一档,鉴于他们球队战绩相近,且都或放走或签约了某些功能失调的球员。奇才队也会被我归到这一档,到目前为止我还是不看好他们。
The EU is making clear it wants to use the void in US leadership on trade to nail down new trade agreements. The negotiations with the Mercosur trade bloc in Latin America have been going on in fits and starts for more than a decade. But the EU and key Mercosur members like Argentina are now pushing to conclude a deal by the end of this year. That would be a big statement planted right in the US’s backyard.
在此次颁奖典礼上,麦肯锡全球董事总经理鲍达民(Dominic Barton)在典礼上还颁发了“布拉肯贠尔”青年商业作家奖(Bracken Bower Prize for young business writers),获奖者为克里斯托弗克利尔菲尔德(Christopher Clearfield)和安德拉什舠尔奇克(András Tilcsik)。他们计划出版的图书将会探索企业如何能够管控发生灾难性失败的风险。该奖项面向35岁以下作者,专门颁发给那些探讨增长所构成的挑战和机遇的商业图书计划,奖金为1.5万英镑。
旅友们,注意啦!尽管你可能还没制定好旅行计划,但“2014年最佳旅游目的地榜单”已经新鲜出炉了。近日,著名旅行指南出版商孤独星球出版社发布了“2014最佳旅游”排行榜。下面我们就从排名前十的国家中挑选出一些目的地让你先睹为快。
其中有铁环的那一个是在江苏西部的仪征市发现的。
Always wanted to be an author but not sure where to start? Have you considered self-publishing? Thanks to Amazon, you can. Kindle Direct Publishing allows you to get the word out via e-books, CreateSpacehelps you develop a print edition and ACX is the audio publishing division. I’ve used all three to develop my book.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

房价最高十大城区:北京西城排第一 北京上海各占4席

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • A total of 3,077 new cases of HIV infection took place in colleges and universities across China in 2017, according to the National Health Commission (NHC) at a press conference on Friday.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • n. 扩大,膨胀,扩充
  • 理性判断市场前景 房企降速求稳
  • 雷军表示:“这是一个使我震惊的消息。作为一名围棋的忠实爱好者,我从来没有想到人工智能在当前阶段可以击败一个人类冠军,因为这是一项非常复杂的棋类运动。”
  • 房价上涨三大动力变化 今年各地房价将继续分化
  • Across all European schools, the average salary of alumni three years after graduation ranges from $143,000 for executive MBA graduates to $54,000 for MiM graduates. MBA graduates earned on average $123,000. Spanish and German MiM graduates enjoyed the highest salary three years after graduation, both $70,000 on average. French MBA graduates and Swiss EMBA graduates top their salary scale, with average salaries of $137,000 and $166,000 respectively.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 时尚、科技是家具转型突破口
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • I loved his list (hat tip to him), but I thought I’d elaborate on what I believe makes for an effective boss or manager。
  • 另外上榜的有Pink,勒布朗詹姆斯,赛琳娜戈麦斯,伊恩萨默海尔德,Jay-Z和碧昂丝夫妇,本阿弗莱克等明星。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

社保须兼顾中小企业利益 建议社保费发票可抵扣增值税

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